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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

BALLS, COLLARS, ball, upsetting, welding, collar, forging, shovel, poker handle, round, octagonal, head, andiron, square, welded
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BALLS AND COLLARS 101 The best method to use depends on the size of ball wanted. If it is to be a small one, upsetting is a good method, but, if the ball is to be large, welding a collar or forging from the solid is preferable. If a ball alone is desired it is worked at the end of a bar, and when finished it is cut off. If a ball or cube is to be used as a finish at the end of a shovel or poker handle, it is generally forged on the end of a bar that is to be used for the handle, or it may be forged with a short tang and then welded to the handle. In working up a round or octagonal head that may be used at the end of a poker or at the top of an andiron the methods are the same, varying only in size. In welding a round collar of any kind onto another bar, the collar is formed and cut so that when driven on there will be an opening between the two ends of the collar. The reason for this is that in the operation of welding the collar will be stretched by the blows of the hammer and there must be room for the ends to lengthen. In the case of a square collar there is not so much danger, as it is hammered on four sides, giving the sides a chance to upset. In Fig. 58, at A, are shown square and round collars as they would appear when ready to be welded on a bar, either at the end or other part of the bar. After a square collar is welded it

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