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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

p.130, HAND FORGING, candelabrum, forging, candlestick, emery wheel, file, welded, Fig. 81, metal, scarfed, horn, anvil, cone, welding, pair of tongs, joint, fluxed, welding, shank, fullering, Fig. 82, two-light, candlestick, steel
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p.130 HAND -FORGING At B is shown a different style of base. Unlike the candelabrum, this base is very slender, and the method of forging is entirely different. The cut shows its appearance after the forging operation. It is to be the base of a candlestick, and to finish it properly it must be ground on an emery wheel and also smoothed with a file. The base consists of two pieces welded together, and is made by first cutting, from a plate of soft steel l/8 in. thick, the form shown at A, Fig. 81. The ends are then scarfed and the pieces bent over the horn of the anvil in the form of a cone, as shown at B. A heat is now raised, welding down the laps excepting at the small end of the cone. This is hammered square, having the lap between two of the corners. A piece of 1-in. square iron is then cut 5 in. long and upset on one end as shown at C. The square piece is driven into the cone as shown at D. The cone is caught at the bottom with a pair of tongs and placed into the fire so as to get a heat at the top end of the cone; the joint is fluxed and the heat raised, welding the two parts by hammering them square. The top or swelling in the shank, as shown in the cut, is formed by fullering each side of it. When this is done the stock above is drawn to the desired size. Fig. 82 shows a two-light candlestick with the base fastened to the upright piece not shown. The base is made from 1/8 in. thick soft steel. It

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