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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

p.146, HAND FORGING, hammer, depressions, leaf, sink, leaflets, raised, ribs, pipes, tool, Fig. 93, tool, vise, chisel, peen, Fig. 94, ornamental, scrollwork, acanthus, leaf, welded, leaves, scroll, tongs
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p.146 HAND-FORGING also used to hammer on, working depressions from the top of the leaf into the sink with the hammer. After the leaflets are raised the ribs and pipes are trued by setting them onto a tool as shown in Fig. 93. This tool, which is to be caught in a vise, is simply a chisel ground rounding across the face. The rib of the leaf is straightened by setting it onto this tool, top part up, with the peen of the hammer. The edge of the rib is held against the side of the tool and struck with the hammer, and at the same time the leaf is kept moving along the tool. As the end is neared the rib is made a little narrower, gradually letting it taper to a point. The pipes are trued in the same manner, letting them taper to a point as the end is reached. They are also tangent to it. Fig. 94 shows an ornamental piece of scrollwork with the acanthus leaf welded in position. In welding on leaves, the bars should be bent the same shape as the leaves for a distance equal to the length of the leaf. The reason for this is that the bar under the leaf cannot be formed very well with the leaf attached. Another reason is that the leaf will hug the bar and keep its shape while getting the heat. When the leaf is welded the rest of the scroll is formed. To weld a leaf the top part is hammered around the bar and the whole placed into a small fire. The leaf and bar are caught with a pair of tongs that fit the work

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