and welded. A collar is welded near the end, and the shank at the end swaged so a 1/2-in. thread may be cut for the nut. The piece is cut off, filed, and a thread cut on the pipe so it will screw into the coupling. The nut should be turned on a machine lathe, as it is round, but it may be forged on the end of a bar, cut off and finished with a file. The hole is drilled and tapped with a 17/32-in. tap. The reason for this is that a loose thread will allow the nut to adjust itself to the top of the shade, especially if it is not tapped straight. A 3/16-in. hole is drilled half way through the side of the nut to allow a little rod to be inserted to tighten it.
The base comes next in order. This should be a plate of soft steel 1/8 in. thick. It is hammered on the wooden block to raise the center part. A hole is drilled in the center and tapped for the lower end of the pipe. A hole is also drilled and tapped for a hard-rubber bushing. This is for the wire to go through and connect with the fixture.
After the pipe is screwed into the base the braces shown at B are forged and drilled. To fasten them to the standard two of them, on opposite sides of the pipe, are fastened in position with a small clamp. The holes through the base are now drilled and the braces riveted to the base with 1/4-in. rivets. Holes are next drilled through the