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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

p.186,	HAND FORGING, welded, collar, shank, swaged, thread, nut, filed, coupling, machine lathe, forged, finished, drilled, tapped, shade, base, plate, soft steel, hammered, wooden block, raise, pipe, hard-rubber bushing, fixture, braces, clamp, 1/4-in., rivets
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p.186 HAND-FORGING and welded. A collar is welded near the end, and the shank at the end swaged so a 1/2-in. thread may be cut for the nut. The piece is cut off, filed, and a thread cut on the pipe so it will screw into the coupling. The nut should be turned on a machine lathe, as it is round, but it may be forged on the end of a bar, cut off and finished with a file. The hole is drilled and tapped with a 17/32-in. tap. The reason for this is that a loose thread will allow the nut to adjust itself to the top of the shade, especially if it is not tapped straight. A 3/16-in. hole is drilled half way through the side of the nut to allow a little rod to be inserted to tighten it. The base comes next in order. This should be a plate of soft steel 1/8 in. thick. It is hammered on the wooden block to raise the center part. A hole is drilled in the center and tapped for the lower end of the pipe. A hole is also drilled and tapped for a hard-rubber bushing. This is for the wire to go through and connect with the fixture. After the pipe is screwed into the base the braces shown at B are forged and drilled. To fasten them to the standard two of them, on opposite sides of the pipe, are fastened in position with a small clamp. The holes through the base are now drilled and the braces riveted to the base with 1/4-in. rivets. Holes are next drilled through the

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