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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

p.30, HAND-FORGING, quenched, danger, cracking, steel, salt, quenching, bath, Tools, forge-shop, tongs, flat, round, jaws, Fig. 4, forged, Swedish iron, soft steel, reins, handles, upset, welded, rivet, hole, punched, anvil, riveting
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30 HAND-FORGING even heat—hot throughout the piece. It must not be quenched in water that is too cold, as there is danger of cracking the steel from uneven heating and cold water. A little salt in the water makes a good quenching bath. Tools.—It is necessary to have a fair knowledge of an ordinary forge-shop and the tools in use. There should be a good set of tongs of all kinds, such as flat and round jaws, aa shown in Fig. 4. The jaws should be forged from square Swedish iron or soft steel. For small tongs %-in. square is about right; others may be forged from %-in., %-in., %-in. and 1-in. The reins, or handles, may be common iron from i/4 in. round to ^ or % in., and ~ in. for the larger ones. The handles should be well thickened, or upset, on one end, for a distance of 2 in., and welded to the different-sized jaws. Tongs should be forged neatly and well fitted in the jaws. The rivet in the jaws should be a piece of round iron cut long enough to head from each side. After the jaws are forged and the reins welded, the hole is punched in one jaw for the rivet. Then the other jaw is heated. It is then laid on the anvil, and, setting the piece that is punched on top of it, it is marked and the hole punched. The piece that is to be used as a rivet is heated, and, placing the two jaws together on the anvil, the rivet is inserted into the holes and headed from both sides, riveting the jaws tightly

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