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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

Blacksmith, HAND-FORGING, fullered, lengthwise, fuller, rivet, jaws, tongs, anvil, hammered, steam hammer, without, welding, tools, materials, manual-training, forge-shops, ring
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34 HAND-FORGING The flat part of the jaw is also fullered lengthwise with a small fuller. The fuller mark is to help hold flat and round bars when in the tongs. (See Fig. 6.) The tong handles are heated and hammered smooth at their ends so that they will riot injure the hands. After the holes are punched, a piece of 3/8-in. round iron is heated at one end and enough stock partly cut off to make a rivet as shown at A, Fig. 7. This piece is again heated and the two jaws of tongs set together on the anvil, the rivet is inserted into the holes, and the bar broken off at the cut previously made. The rivet is now hammered on both ends to head it, as shown at B. The rivet should be drawn tight with the hammer. Afterward the jaws are heated red and the handles worked back and forth until they are free on the rivet. Tongs may also be made by forging them under a steam hammer, making the jaws and handles from one piece of stock without any welding, but as the object is to teach the pupil to become familiar with his tools and materials, this method is not to be recommended in manual-training forge-shops. In forging light pieces that have to be held with tongs, always use a light pair that fits the piece well. It is also convenient to place a ring on the end of the reins to bind them firmly to the piece being forged. They can thus be more easily

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