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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

upsetting, thickening, shortening, iron, steel, stock, heat, water, tongs, vertical
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CHAPTER III WORKING AT THE FORGE BY upsetting is meant the thickening or shortening of a piece of iron or steel. In upsetting stock the heat should be taken just where it needs to be made large. In case the heat spreads over more of the bar than is desired, water should be poured on the part which is to be cooled. There Fig. IS. One Method of Upsetting are different methods of upsetting. Say, for instance, a bar 10 in. long is to be upset on the end. It is heated on that end, then caught in a pair of tongs, holding the piece vertical, and hammered on the cold end while the hot end is on the anvil. This hammering bulges the iron out where it is hot. The piece should be kept straight while upsetting, as it upsets much faster and is not so liable to fracture the grain of the stock. (See drawing, Fig. 13.) 41

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