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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

HAND-FORGING, upsetting, tongs, metal, hand hammer, welded, Ramming, anvil, vise
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42 HAND-FORGING Another method of upsetting is shown in Fig. 14. The piece is held in the tongs, and the metal is driven back with the hand hammer. This method is a good one when the piece needs but little Fig. 14. Another Method of Upsetting enlarging. For instance, where small stock is to be welded together, it is quicker and easier to keep the bar straight, as the tongs need not be changed; at the same time the scarf can be partly worked out. Ramming.—When bars from 2 ft. to 4 or 5 ft. long are to be upset they are heated on the end and churned up and down on the anvil, the force of the blow enlarging the part heated. Or, in case the bar is to be upset a foot from one end, the bar being long enough to be handled without danger of burning the hands, it is upset by ramming. (See Fig. 15.) Another way of upsetting pieces that cannot be rammed or upset on the anvil, owing to parts that must not be hammered on, is to heat the part to be upset in the same manner as described above, then catching it in a strong vise and en-

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