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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

WELDING RINGS, heat, raised, hammering, flat sides, horn of the anvil, scarfed, egg-shaped, upset, Bands, hoop, 3-1/7, PI, 3.141593
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WELDING RINGS 69 shown at B. When the heat is raised, the piece is welded by hammering on the flat sides first, then slipped over the horn of the anvil, in order to work down the edge. It is afterward rounded into shape. In welding rings of square or rounded stock the length is first determined. The piece may be heated and bent into shape (or some rings may be formed cold) ; the ends are then heated and scarfed on the side, leaving the ring somewhat egg-shaped, as shown at C. The reason for this is that the heat can be taken directly on the laps. The ring is welded by first hammering it on the sides, then on the horn of the anvil. Sometimes the stock for rings is upset and scarfed on each end and afterward bent in shape, but this is rarely necessary. Bands and hoops are welded in the same manner as described above. To find the amount of stock necessary to make a ring, hoop or band add together the thickness of the stock and the diameter of the inside of the ring, and multiply this by 3-1/7 (PI = 3.141593). Example: Suppose a ring is required of 1-in. stock, with the inside diameter 10 in. Solution: (10 + 1) X 3-1/7 = 11 X 3-1/7 = 34-1/7 in. To this should be added the amount required for waste in making the weld, in this case about 3/8 in.

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