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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

HAND, FORGING, U-shape, welded, scarfed, hammered, horn, lap, heat, hammering, anvil, Links, light stock, wet coal, scarfing, pointed, burning, stock, raised, twisting
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74 HAND-FORGING to the first one turned. This is what is termed a double link. Round stock may also be turned in a U-shape having the ends even. The U is then welded. In doing this the ends of the U may be scarfed on the side of bar, then hammered over the horn so that one lap passes the other. A heat is taken and the link welded by hammering it on the sides and then on the horn of the anvil. Links from light stock should not be scarfed, but hammered while cold over the horn until the ends of the U are lapped the proper distance, a heat being then taken and the link welded. A small fire should be used for welding light links such as ~ in. and smaller. The fire should J.O be well banked on the sides and back with wet coal, leaving a small opening at the front and top to take in the heat. Links and rings from round stock, when lapped either with or without scarfing, should be very pointed and not formed round. The reason for this is that, in taking a welding heat on any kind of stock that has been lapped together in the manner described above, there is more or less waste each side of the laps, and always danger of burning the stock before the laps are raised to the welding heat. After a link is welded it may be heated and given a quarter turn to the right by catching each end with a pair of tongs and twisting.

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