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Hand Forging by Thomas F. Googerty

HAND FORGING, hammered, convex, dirt, welding, swaged, Flat Rings, heat, bent, flatter, sledge hammer, scarfed
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68 HAND - FORGING on the end and hammered slightly convex so as to allow the dirt to drop out while welding. When the weld is made they are swaged to their original size. Welding Flat Rings.—In making flat rings the stock is heated and bent on its edge. Care must be taken while working it to keep it from buckling, also to keep its edges the same thickness, as in bending the iron must upset on the inner edge and stretch on the outer edge. To avoid this, it should be flattened on its sides while bending. This is done with the flatter and sledge hammer. When it is bent into shape it will look like A, Fig. 39. It should be cut off on the dotted lines and then scarfed. It is now heated Fig. 39. Welding Flat Rings and again bent so that the scarfs will lap each other the proper distance. They should not be driven down too tight. It is better to have them a little open in order to knock the dirt out, as

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