Cast Iron Properties

Mechanical property reference data for various grey cast irons, includes Tensile strength, Compressive Strength, Shear Modulus of Rupture, Tensile Modulus of Elasticity, Torsional Modulus of Elasticity, Endurance Limit and Brinell hardness data.

The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) numbering system for grey cast iron is established such that the numbers corespond to the minimum tensile strength in KPSI. Thus an ASTM No. 20 cast iron has a minimum tensile strength of 20 KPSI. Note particularly that the tabulations are typical values. Multiply strength in KPSI by 6.89 to get strength in MPa.

Steels given for comparison purposes. Tensile and hardness given as rolled and heat treated by water quench and tempered at 425°F. The SAE 1050 heat treated is roughly the properties of most anvils. However the temper condition given is softer. Use the SAE 1095 temper for anvils.


IRON Shear Modulus of Elasticity
ASTM
Number
Tensile
strength
KPSI
Compressive
strength
KPSI
modulus of
rupture
KPSI
MPSI
Tension   Torsion
Endurance
limit
KPSI
Brinell
Hardness
Hb
20 22 83 26 9.6 - 14 3.9 - 5.6 10 156
25 26 97 32 11.5 - 14.8 4.6 - 6.0 11.5 174
30 31 109 40 13.0 - 16.4 5.6 - 6.6 14 201
35 36.5 124 48.5 14.5 - 17.2 5.8 - 6.9 16 212
40 42.5 140 57 16.0 - 20 6.4 - 7.8 18.5 235
50 52.5 164 73 18.8 - 22.8 7.2 - 8.0 21.5 262
60 62.5 187.5 88.5 20.4 - 23.5 7.8 - 8.5 24.5 302
AISI-SAE
STEEL
Tensile strength KPSI
As rolled       Heat treated
Yeild
KPSI
MPSI
Tension   Torsion
Brinell
Hardness
Hb
Brinell
Hardness
Hb @ 425°F
1020 65 ~100 48 / 80 29.5 143 ~300
1050 105 145 60 / 100 30 229 375
1095 140 216 83 / 139 30 293 388


Cast iron is a brittle virtually non-maleable metal that is considered generally inflexible. Cast iron is NOT the metal worked by blacksmiths. It cannot be forged. Cast iron is worked by melting to a liquid and pouring in molds, then by sawing, filing, machining (chip making methods). The stiffness and dampening properties of cast iron make it an excellent material for machine tool frames and parts.


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